基于阿里云实现kubernetes cluster-autoscaler

概述

在业务上了kubernetes集群以后,容器编排的功能之一是能提供业务服务弹性伸缩能力,但是我们应该保持多大的节点规模来满足应用需求呢?这个时候可以通过cluster-autoscaler实现节点级别的动态添加与删除,动态调整容器资源池,应对峰值流量。在Kubernetes中共有三种不同的弹性伸缩策略,分别是HPA(HorizontalPodAutoscaling)、VPA(VerticalPodAutoscaling)与CA(ClusterAutoscaler)。其中HPA和VPA主要扩缩容的对象是容器,而CA的扩缩容对象是节点。
我们线上转码业务从每天下午4点开始,负载开始飙高,在晚上10点左右负载会回落;目前是采用静态容量规划导致服务器资源不能合理利用,所以记录下如何通过cluster-autoscaler来动态伸缩pod资源所需的容器资源池

应用aliyun-cluster-autoscaler

前置条件:

  • aliyun-cloud-provider

1. 权限认证

由于autoscaler会调用阿里云ESS api来触发集群规模调整,因此需要配置api 访问的AK。

自定义权限策略如下:

{
  "Version": "1",
  "Statement": [
    {
      "Action": [
        "ess:Describe*",
        "ess:CreateScalingRule",
        "ess:ModifyScalingGroup",
        "ess:RemoveInstances",
        "ess:ExecuteScalingRule",
        "ess:ModifyScalingRule",
        "ess:DeleteScalingRule",
        "ess:DetachInstances",
        "ecs:DescribeInstanceTypes"
      ],
      "Resource": [
        "*"
      ],
      "Effect": "Allow"
    }
  ]
}

创建一个k8s-cluster-autoscaler的编程访问用户,将其自定义权限策略应用到此用户,并创建AK.

2.ASG Setup

自动扩展kubernetes集群需要阿里云ESS(弹性伸缩组)的支持,因此需要先创建一个ESS。
进入ESS控制台. 选择北京Region(和kubernetes集群所在region保持一致),点击【创建伸缩组】,在弹出的对话框中填写相应信息,注意网络类型选择专有网络,并且专有网络选择前置条件1中的Kubernetes集群所在的vpc网络名,然后选择vswitch(和kubernetes节点所在的vswitch),然后提交。如下图:

image.png
其中伸缩配置需要单独创建,选择实例规格(建议选择多种资源一致的实例规格,避免实力规格不足导致伸缩失败)、安全组(和kubernetes node所在同个安全组)、带宽峰值选择0(不分配公网IP),设置用户数据等等。注意用户数据取使用文本形式,同时将获取kubernetes集群的添加节点命令粘贴到该文本框中,并在之前添加#!/bin/bash,下面是将此节点注册到集群的实例示例:

#!/bin/bash 
curl https://dl.ipalfish.com/kubernetes-stage/attach_node.sh | bash -s -- --kubeconfig [kubectl.kubeconfig | base64] --cluster-dns 172.19.0.10 --docker-version 18.06.2-ce-3 --labels type=autoscaler 

然后完成创建,启用配置

  1. 部署Autoscaler到kubernetes集群中
    需要手动指定上面刚刚创建伸缩组ID以及伸缩最小和最大的机器数量,示例:
--nodes=1:d:asg-2ze9hse7u4udb6y4kd25  
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: cloud-autoscaler-config
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  access-key-id: "xxxx"
  access-key-secret: "xxxxx"
  region-id: "cn-beijing"
---
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-addon: cluster-autoscaler.addons.k8s.io
    k8s-app: cluster-autoscaler
  name: cluster-autoscaler
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: cluster-autoscaler
  labels:
    k8s-addon: cluster-autoscaler.addons.k8s.io
    k8s-app: cluster-autoscaler
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["events","endpoints"]
  verbs: ["create", "patch"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["pods/eviction"]
  verbs: ["create"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["pods/status"]
  verbs: ["update"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["endpoints"]
  resourceNames: ["cluster-autoscaler"]
  verbs: ["get","update"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["nodes"]
  verbs: ["watch","list","get","update"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["pods","services","replicationcontrollers","persistentvolumeclaims","persistentvolumes"]
  verbs: ["watch","list","get"]
- apiGroups: ["extensions"]
  resources: ["replicasets","daemonsets"]
  verbs: ["watch","list","get"]
- apiGroups: ["policy"]
  resources: ["poddisruptionbudgets"]
  verbs: ["watch","list"]
- apiGroups: ["apps"]
  resources: ["statefulsets"]
  verbs: ["watch","list","get"]
- apiGroups: ["storage.k8s.io"]
  resources: ["storageclasses"]
  verbs: ["watch","list","get"]

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Role
metadata:
  name: cluster-autoscaler
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-addon: cluster-autoscaler.addons.k8s.io
    k8s-app: cluster-autoscaler
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["configmaps"]
  verbs: ["create","list","watch"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["configmaps"]
  resourceNames: ["cluster-autoscaler-status", "cluster-autoscaler-priority-expander"]
  verbs: ["delete","get","update","watch"]

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: cluster-autoscaler
  labels:
    k8s-addon: cluster-autoscaler.addons.k8s.io
    k8s-app: cluster-autoscaler
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-autoscaler
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: cluster-autoscaler
    namespace: kube-system

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  name: cluster-autoscaler
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-addon: cluster-autoscaler.addons.k8s.io
    k8s-app: cluster-autoscaler
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: cluster-autoscaler
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: cluster-autoscaler
    namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: cluster-autoscaler
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    app: cluster-autoscaler
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: cluster-autoscaler
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: cluster-autoscaler
    spec:
      priorityClassName: system-cluster-critical
      serviceAccountName: cluster-autoscaler
      containers:
        - image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/acs/autoscaler:v1.3.1-567fb17
          name: cluster-autoscaler
          resources:
            limits:
              cpu: 100m
              memory: 300Mi
            requests:
              cpu: 100m
              memory: 300Mi
          command:
            - ./cluster-autoscaler
            - --v=4
            - --stderrthreshold=info
            - --cloud-provider=alicloud
            - --nodes={MIN_NODE}:{MAX_NODE}:{ASG_ID}
            - --skip-nodes-with-system-pods=false
            - --skip-nodes-with-local-storage=false
          imagePullPolicy: "Always"
          env:
          - name: ACCESS_KEY_ID
            valueFrom:
              configMapKeyRef:
                name: cloud-autoscaler-config
                key: access-key-id
          - name: ACCESS_KEY_SECRET
            valueFrom:
              configMapKeyRef:
                name: cloud-autoscaler-config
                key: access-key-secret
          - name: REGION_ID
            valueFrom:
              configMapKeyRef:
                name: cloud-autoscaler-config
                key: region-id

测试自动扩展节点效果

Autoscaler根据用户应用的资源静态请求量来决定是否扩展集群大小,因此需要设置好应用的资源请求量。

测试前节点数量如下,配置均为2核4G ECS,其中两个节点可调度。

[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ cluster-autoscaler]# kubectl get node
NAME                                STATUS   ROLES         AGE   VERSION
cn-beijing.i-2ze190o505f86pvk8ois   Ready    master,node   46h   v1.12.3
cn-beijing.i-2zeef9b1nhauqusbmn4z   Ready    node          46h   v1.12.3

接下来我们创建一个副本nginx deployment, 指定每个nginx副本需要消耗2G内存。

[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ cluster-autoscaler]# cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-example
spec:
  replicas: 2
  revisionHistoryLimit: 2
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx-example
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: nginx:latest
        name: nginx
        ports:
          - containerPort: 80
        resources:
          requests:
            memory: 2G
EOF
[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ cluster-autoscaler]# kubectl get pod
NAME                             READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-example-6669fc6b48-ndclg   1/1     Running   0          15s
nginx-example-6669fc6b48-tn5wp   1/1     Running   0          15s

看到由于有足够的cpu内存资源,所以pod能够正常调度。接下来我们使用kubectl scale 命令来扩展副本数量到4个。

[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ cluster-autoscaler]# kubectl scale deploy nginx-example --replicas 3
deployment.extensions/nginx-example scaled
[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ ~]# kubectl get pod
NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-example-584bdb467-2s226   1/1     Running   0          13m
nginx-example-584bdb467-lz2jt   0/1     Pending   0          4s
nginx-example-584bdb467-r7fcc   1/1     Running   0          4s
[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ cluster-autoscaler]# kubectl describe pod nginx-example-584bdb467-lz2jt | grep -A 4 Event
Events:
  Type     Reason            Age               From               Message
  ----     ------            ----              ----               -------
  Warning  FailedScheduling  1s (x5 over 19s)  default-scheduler  0/2 nodes are available: 2 Insufficient memory.

发现由于没有足够的cpu内存资源,该pod无法被调度(pod 处于pending状态)。这时候autoscaler会介入,尝试创建一个新的节点来让pod可以被调度。看下伸缩组状态,已经创建了一台机器

接下来我们执行一个watch kubectl get no 的命令来监视node的添加。大约几分钟后,就有新的节点添加进来了。

[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ ~]# kubectl get node
NAME                                STATUS   ROLES             AGE     VERSION
cn-beijing.i-2ze190o505f86pvk8ois   Ready    master,node       17m     v1.12.3
cn-beijing.i-2zedqvw2bewvk0l2mk9x   Ready    autoscaler,node   2m30s   v1.12.3
cn-beijing.i-2zeef9b1nhauqusbmn4z   Ready    node              2d17h   v1.12.3
[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ ~]# kubectl get pod
NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-example-584bdb467-2s226   1/1     Running   0          19m
nginx-example-584bdb467-lz2jt   1/1     Running   0          5m47s
nginx-example-584bdb467-r7fcc   1/1     Running   0          5m47s

可以观察到比测试前新增了一个节点,并且pod也正常调度了。

测试自动收缩节点数量

当Autoscaler发现通过调整Pod分布时可以空闲出多余的node的时候,会执行节点移除操作。这个操作不会立即执行,通常设置了一个冷却时间,300s左右才会执行scale down。
通过kubectl scale 来调整nginx副本数量到1个,观察集群节点的变化。

[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ cluster-autoscaler]# kubectl scale deploy nginx-example --replicas 1
deployment.extensions/nginx-example scaled
[root@iZ2ze190o505f86pvk8oisZ cluster-autoscaler]# kubectl get node
NAME                                STATUS   ROLES         AGE   VERSION
cn-beijing.i-2ze190o505f86pvk8ois   Ready    master,node   46h   v1.12.3
cn-beijing.i-2zeef9b1nhauqusbmn4z   Ready    node          46h   v1.12.3


TODO: 

  • 模糊调度
    创建多个伸缩组,每个伸缩组对应不同实例规格机器比如高IO\高内存的,不同应用弹性伸缩对应类型的伸缩组
  • cronHPA + autoscaler
     由于node弹性伸缩存在一定的时延,这个时延主要包含:采集时延(分钟级) + 判断时延(分钟级) + 伸缩时延(分钟级)结合业务,根据时间段,自动伸缩业务(CronHPA)来处理高峰数据,底层自动弹性伸缩kubernetes node增大容器资源池

参考地址:

https://github.com/kubernetes/autoscaler/blob/master/cluster-autoscaler/FAQ.md

https://github.com/kubernetes/autoscaler/tree/master/cluster-autoscaler/cloudprovider/alicloud

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如何优雅的处理”💩”

💩导致了什么问题

最近上线的一个活动,线上偶尔报“High surrogate without following low surrogate”这个错误。最后定位到是用户昵称截取的时候把emoji表情截成了一半,输入到canvas的时候会报一个fatal error,导致用户无法进行下步操作。

为什么会导致💩问题

这就要从字符编码说起,由于js出生的年代是在太久远,所以使用的是过时的UCS-2编码。因为”💩”在 JS 的编码是”\uD83D\uDCA9″,而 JS 认为每 16 位 (2 字节)即表示一个字符,所以一坨大便是占 2 个字符的。例如


"\uD83D\uDCA9" === "💩" true "💩".length // 多字节字符在js中的长度有问题 2 "💩"[0] // 取便便的第一个字符会输入半坨乱码 "�" "我是一坨便便💩".split('').reverse().join('') // 便便倒过来也会有问题 "��便便坨一是我" // 甚至还有更奇怪的family emoji 👩‍👩‍👧‍👦,长度是11个字节(为什么family是两个妈妈一个儿子一个女儿不要问我🙅) "👩‍👩‍👧‍👦".length // family 的字符长度是11 11

如何安全的处理💩

ES6 已经在很努力地填坑了,可以用es6的解构语法或者Array.from 安全的将string转换为数组来处理。例如

"我是一坨便便💩".length // 常规js把emoji当做两个长度来处理
8

[..."我是一坨便便💩"].length  //解构方法把emoji表情当做一个长度处理
7
 Array.from("我是一坨便便💩").length // es6 的数组处理也可以把表情当做一个字符处理
7


Palfish JSBridge Chrome extension技术方案

Palfish JSBridge Chrome extension是一款为辅助前端开发调试而编写的chrome插件。

通常我们的开发环境中不能或者说很难调试一些依赖客户端的操作,不利于编码和排查问题。
Palfish JSBridge Chrome extension能够模拟客户端的一些基本操作,方便开发调试。
该插件无需更改任何代码即可直接使用,开启注入功能后,将自动注入PalfishBridgeAndroid全局变量,可实现客户端的登录、HTTP请求等功能。

chrome插件的5种运行环境

chrome插件有5种运行环境,分别为inject/content/popup/background/devtools,下面分别介绍一下这5种环境
1.inject js即注入到页面里的js,和我们开发时写的js没啥区别
2.content script与inject功能相似,但和inject js运行在不同的上下文里,即不能访问页面中的js变量方法等,但可以操作dom元素,可以通过PostMessage与页面通信,通过runtime和popup/backgound通信
3.popup js是我们点击浏览器的插件图标弹出的页面中的js,不能操作页面中的dom,但可以无限制跨域等
4.background js与popup的功能类似,但没有页面,而且生命周期比较长
5.devtools js常见的功能类似于在调试窗口增加一些标签等

总结一下
js类型 功能 访问DOM 访问页面js 跨域
inject 和页面普通js一样 ×
content 和页面js运行在隔离环境里,功能类似 × ×
popup 弹出框中的js × ×
background 与其他js通信,跨域请求等 × ×
devtool 在devtool面板增加功能页面 ×

chrome插件的通信方法

js类型 通信方法
inject 只能通过postMessage和content通信
content 通过runtime与popup/background通信,通过postMessage与content通信
popup 通过tabs与content通信,通过getBackgroundPage与background通信
background 通过tabs与content通信,通过getViews与popup通信
devtool 通过runtime与popup/background通信,通过inspectedWindow.eval与inject通信
本插件的消息传递流程

本插件通过inject js(PalfishBridgeAndroid变量)发送postMessage到content,再由content转发至background,background收到消息后执行相关操作(http请求等),并将执行结果返回到content,由content PostMessage到inject,从而完成模拟

本插件的技术难点

1.如何在页面添加变量
插件实际上是不能直接操作页面(inject)js的,也就没法直接添加变量和方法,但插件可以操作dom,故我们通过增加script标签的方式将一段js代码注入到页面中,从而实现添加变量。
2.页面如何与background通信
显然页面js是不能直接用runtime与background通信的,但由于inject与content共享dom,故我们可以使用addEventListener和postMessage来实现inject与content通信,再由content将数据转发给background

具体代码可以看这儿

https://gitlab.pri.ibanyu.com/front/picturebook/palfish-jsbridge-extension

如何定制方法/参与开发

本插件目前只实现了core.info和http.post方法,其他方法可以在mock标签自行添加,返回值必须是json格式,如果有比较通用的方法,可以提mr到项目,增加方法只需要修改src/background.js的methodTable变量即可

在使用过程中发现问题或者需求,可以与我联系,有时间尽量给予支持

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Online dating sites has turned into a sensation of today and it sounds as if just about everyone is usually involved in it. There are a few benefits that one can get from getting started a mature internet dating web page yet another thing that need to be deemed is normally how secure it really is.

Dating is meant for non-public people and never pertaining to people. Most of the circumstances, we find those who are certainly not thinking about calling all of us in an recognized approach. We can look for somebody who is different from all of us simply by enrolling on the general population site, however it will probably be recommended to avoid general public seeing as far as possible.

A dating internet site is merely designed for a private person. If you have a close relationship with an individual, then you will need to preserve a certain https://hookupgurureview.com higher level of personal privacy. You might also realize that internet dating sites need you to give a lot of personal data.

It will be possible that a lot of people do not brain presenting their particular complete name when they sign up to adult websites. The reason is in most cases, people prefer to give their particular periods with someone who that they already know. Several sites request the age of anyone but it is very important to not overlook that any person is in freedom to decline any type of contact. That is relevant designed for other sorts of persons in addition to the physicians.

As there are plenty of websites which might be obtained online, the search for an adult internet dating web page is often rather perplexing. Yet there are some facts that you should find out about. Quite a few people believe that there are many websites which can be more than just a going out with web page. You ought to be aware about the very fact that every internet dating sites are definitely not as well.

Lots of the websites today happen to be adult talk sites where you could connect with persons and speak with these people over the internet within a non-sexual method. There are many those who find themselves in to no cost seeing since they would like to be around a unfamiliar person for them to begin fresh interactions. It is just a superb approach to enjoy the advantages of going out with but the proper way to ensure your essential safety is to sign-up over a prime web page.

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The easiest way to perform Dsi games is always to enjoy them from computer system on your own computer system. There are choices such as getting a SONY PSP that will enjoy the game titles and a Playstation 3 or xbox Lightweight. Even though every single system possesses its own program requirements, these can always be attained with no concerns hence finding out tips on how to perform Playstation 3 or xbox 2 roms on the Nintendo DSi ought not to be hard.

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During the past, Plus an integral part of many sites such as this, www.sugardaddy.guru/ which can be most of a favourite these days. The point that Plus a component of this sort of internet sites definitely made me better plus skilled the online going out with field from both equally sides. We are not the same person who the simple truth is at this time yet I discovered many things that allowed me to achieve the desired goals within transforming into a guru inside sugar online dating.

I will start out with unhealthy and the great first. The bad edge is that We used the majority of our time in the center once i had been merely starting. We missing this passion regarding on the internet dating mainly because We stored convinced that I will make a change more yet my personal enthusiasm designed for online dating was really growing. Subsequently, I would personally end up getting disappointed and even bored with internet dating.

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